New Report by Prominent Iranian Student Group Reveals Gross Education Rights Violations in IranJune 11, 2013
More than One Thousand Suspended, Starred, Expelled Students
in Iran April 2005 to March 2013
DOWNLOAD PDF (includes list of suspended, starred, and expelled students)
Daneshjoo News | Following the Iranian revolution of 1979, due to their affiliation with political or religious groups, a great number of Iranian students were temporarily or permanently deprived of their right to education. Many students were expelled from university for membership in non-Islamic groups. In recent years the number of students whom organizations under the supervision and control of the Iranian regime has banned or “starred” from education has increased dramatically.
The Right to Education Report aims to raise awareness by providing comprehensive reporting on cases of student rights violations and any other form of education deprivation in Iran throughout the last three decades. We believe that all Iranians-regardless of their gender and personal, political and religious beliefs-deserve the right to education.
–> PART I- Official Institutions Involved in Banning/Excluding Iranian
Citizens from Education
A. National Organization of Educational Testing (NOET)
B. Supreme Cultural Revolution Council (SCRC)
C. Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (MSRT)
D. Islamic Azad University and Ministry of Health and Medical Education
E. The Ministry of Intelligence
F.The Judicial system
G. The Student Disciplinary Committee and Security offices
–> Part II -Student groups expelled from universities in Iran
A. Starred Students
B. Suspended and Expelled students
D. Religious minorities banned from education
E. Depriving Women of Education
Respecting the right to education of all citizens– regardless of their religious and political beliefs, gender, and ethnicity and race– is one of the most evident indications of a government’s commitment to one of the most important aspects of human rights in a society. In the 34 years that the Islamic Republic has ruled over Iran, numerous cases of the violation of citizen right to education in Iranian universities have been reported. In May 1980, a cultural revolution led to the elimination of tens of thousands of dissident students and professors. This trend of purging continued in the following years in various forms.
After Mahmoud Ahmadinejad took office following the 2005 Presidential elections, parts of Iran’s Ministry of Science, Technology, and Research (MSTR)’s policies were more prominently aligned with the decisions of other suppressive institutions outside the universities— such as the Ministry of Intelligence and certain sections of the Judiciary.
Furthermore, as a result of MSTR’s decision and the Supreme Cultural Council’s confirmation, individuals who played important roles in excluding and banning students from education have been appointed as presidents of universities.
The current report presents, in three general parts, the preliminary information on systematic violation of the right to education of Iranian citizens:
- Part one of the report deals with the role of those institutions which are active in violation of the right to education of some of Iranian citizens.
- The second part of the report, through presenting details and examples, covers how the rights to education of the following five specific groups have been violated: “starred” students, banned/excluded students, expelled students, religious minorities, and women.
- Part three of the report contains annexes which lists precise information on more than 1000 instances of violation of rights to education of Iranian citizens between 2005 and 2012. Additionally, evidence and documents of expelling and banning students from continuing their studies have been presented in this section.
PART I –
Official Institutions Involved in Banning/Excluding Iranian Citizens from Education
In recent years, various organizations have played direct and indirect roles in banning Iranian citizens from education. In this section, we present some of these institutions and cover their method of operation:
National Organization of Educational Testing (Sazman-e Sanjesh-e Amoozesh-e Keshvar) (NOET)
An institution under the MSRT which is assigned the executive responsibility of banning citizens from higher (university) education. “Holding and [managing] all the university and higher education establishments’entrance exams”, “Setting the conditions and criteria for admission of the students”, “and evaluation of general qualifications of the applicants to higher education based on regulations and criterions set by qualified sources and agencies” are cited as some of the objectives and responsibilities of this organization.
In 2005, NOET placed “stars” in front of the names of some of the students who had passed the University Entrance Exam. The Organization prevented the so-called “three-star” students from registering at the university to which they were admitted. In the years that followed, the NOET refused to issue the official report card for many of the universities entrance exam’s applicants. In recent years, these applicants have been told to go to the Office of NOET in Karim Khan Zand Street in Tehran due to “incomplete application”.
Instances of these notices are available in Annex 1 of this report.
“Secretariat of Student Vetting”, A direct subset of the NOET’s president office consists of two offices: “Vetting Executive Affairs”, and “Evaluating Students’ General Qualifications”. Both of the offices are playing a direct, executive role in banning applicants from education. The Organizational Charts of the NOET is displayed in Annex 3.
The 2013 Guide Booklet for Registration and Participation in National University Entrance Exam has been published (like previous years) by the NOET. Under the “General Admission Conditions for Applicants”, section A, it is stated that “Belief in Islam or one of the religions stipulated in the Islamic Republic Constitution (Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism) is a condition for admission to the nation’s universities. In section B, “Lack of hostility toward Islamic Republic of Iran regime” is cited as another condition, and an instance of meeting the condition is refraining from promoting “Materialism and bogus/false religions”. The NOET has announced that “determining whether the applicants meet the general conditions is performed through inquiry from law enforcement and other eligible agencies.
The NOET’s president is Ebrahim Khodayi, who was appointed to this position by the Minister of Science, Research and Technology (SRT) in 2012. Mohammad Hossein Sarvoldin was holding the post before Mr. Khodayi (the president of the NOET is also a Minister of SRT’s deputy). The “Secretariat of Student Vetting” is headed by Morteza Nourbakhsh.
Supreme Cultural Revolution Council (SCRC)
An institution that was founded in 1980 on the order of then-Supreme Leader of Islamic Republic, Ayatollah Khomeini. The objectives of SCRC were vetting professors and students as well as islamization of the universities. The SCRC, whose responsibilities were expanded later on, is chaired by the President of the Islamic Republic (I.R.). Its structure consists of legal and real persons, all appointed by the current Supreme Leader of I.R. On February 5, 1985, the SCRC passed “Regulations Regarding Moral Vetting of Universities Applicants”.
According to section A of this Guideline, only those applicants can be admitted to universities that in addition to passing the university entrance exam believe in Islam or another divine religion. Other conditions set for admission to universities by this guideline were “refraining from fighting against or resisting the Islamic Republic of Iran’s regime”, and “lack of reputation and infamy pertaining to immoral, corrupt, and decadent behaviour”.
In the section describing “the method of vetting”, it was stipulated that “for political and moral history of the applicants, inquiries have to be made from such institutions as Ministry of Education, General Prosecution Office, Revolutionary Court, and Ministry of Intelligence”. “The Centre for Research of Documents of Previous Years’ Conours [University Entrance Exam]” has been mentioned as another source of inquiry in this guideline.
In 1988, the SCRC announced new regulations for admitting university students. In section 2 of the new law it is stated: “The individuals who are implicated in moral corruption or political activities in reports issued by Ministry of Intelligence or by law enforcement agencies will be asked, upon admission to university, to commit to reforming their conduct and rehabilitation”. Two weeks later, the SCRC passed another law titled “Instances of hostility and moral corruption relating to new regulations on selection of [university] students”. These regulations are mentioned in the “Applicants General Conditions of Admission” in the NOET’s Guide Booklet for Registration and Participation in National University Entrance Exam.
As previously mentioned, the legislative approach of SCRC leads to the banning and restriction of the access to education of those individuals who follow religious or political beliefs that are not in line with that of the ruling establishment. At the time of publication of this report, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is the current chair (president), and Mohammad Reza Mokhber Dezfouly is the secretary of the SCRC.
Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (MSRT)
The president of National Organization of Educational Testing (NOET), a deputy of Minister of SRT, implements policies of the MSRT in the area of banning students from education. In recent years, appointing presidents of universities who are aligned with the ministry has led to many students being suspended or expelled from universities for their student activism or for their political and religious beliefs. Central Discipline Committee of MSRT has, in many cases, handed down rulings to expel students from the universities.
According “Students Disciplinary Executive Guidelines” which was approved in June of 2009 by the MSRT as well as Ministry of “Health and Medical Education”, only the Central Discipline Committee of MSRT is allowed to directly hand down decisions to “suspend students for more than two semesters”, “[forcibly] change the university of the student”, or “expel and ban students from all universities between 1 to 5 years”. Examples of the expulsion of students by this Committee are presented in Annex 2 of this report.
Based on Act 358 of the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council passed in the meeting held on September 5th, 1995, the composition of the Central Discipline Committee was determined as follows:
- Chair: Deputy of Minister of SRT in Student Affairs
- A Supreme Leader’s representative in one of the universities to be elected by the Central Council of Leader’s Representatives in University
- A legal expert/jurist chosen by the Minister of SRT
- Secretary of the Central Discipline Committee, without the right to vote
- A member of universities’ Academic Boards chosen by Minister of SRT
- A student from the universities Discipline Committees chosen by the Minister of SRT
- Deputy in Student Affairs of one of the universities upon invitation by the Central Discipline Committee
Section 12 of this act states that “If a judicial or security source determines that a student is no longer eligible to enroll in universities, the source has to present and refer the violation/offence and the degree thereof, in writing, to the Central Discipline Committee so that the Committee could make a decision on whether or not the student can continue his/her education. In any case, the authority to determine students’ eligibility or ineligibility for [higher] education lies with the Central Discipline Committee”. Despite clear indication of the section 12 of the Act, in recent years, judicial and security authorities, through direct interference and in violation of the current laws, have banned many students from education.
Islamic Azad University(IAU)and Ministry of Health and Medical Education
The Ministry of Health and Medical Education is responsible for Medical schools across Iran. This ministry, in an approach similar to that of MSRT, has handled the cases of the students, and has banned some from education. Some instances of such acts are referred to in Annex 5.
Islamic Azad Universities where, in recent years, nearly 1,700,000 students were enrolled have their own preliminary, appeal, and central discipline committees which, in turn, have suspended or expelled large number of students. According to the bylaw passed by the Board of Trustees of the Islamic Azad Universities, the members of the Preliminary Discipline Committee (PDC) of Islamic Azad Universities are as follows:
- Deputy in Charge of Student Affairs of the each university as the chair of the PDC
- Islamic Culture Official in small and medium units, and the head of Islamic Culture Office in large and very large units
- Two members of the Academic Board of the university unit chosen by the president of the university (preference given to individuals who are married and graduated from Law)
- A student of the university selected by the president of the university
The appeals against the decisions handed down by the PDCs are heard by the Appeal Student Disciplinary Committee in the Central Organization. They are presided by the Deputy responsible for Students Affairs. In larger university units, the appeals are heard in the Appeal Student Disciplinary Committee of the university where the student is enrolled. These appeal hearings are presided by the president of the university in question. In cases of the decisions to expel students, the appeal is always heard by the Central Disciplinary Committee presided by the Deputy responsible for Students Affairs.
The Ministry of Intelligence
The organization in charge of decision making regarding barring citizens of higher education and starred students. As aforementioned, according to legislation passed by The Supreme Cultural Revolution Council (SCRC), The Ministry of Intelligence is recognized only as one of the authorities to investigate students’ condition to continue their higher education. However in reality this ministry’s role is far beyond a reference of information for other organizations such as National Organization of Educational Testing (NOET). Over the past years, many incidents have been reported in which starred students were orally informed to obtain consent from the Ministry of Intelligence in order to resolve their issue. Additionally, interrogators of the ministry have summoned and threatened students from carrying forward with their education. On several occasions, in order to enroll, qualified applicants were required to sign forms to assure the ministry they will not be involved in any form of activities during their time in Universities and as a student.
The Judicial System
More than just an inquiry reference for NOET. Reports indicate that during the past years courts have been barring students from higher education as an additional punishment. For instance, Majid Tavakoli, Amir Kabir University student activist, was sentenced to a lifetime of exclusion of his right to higher education in all universities inside of Iran by branch 15 of Tehran revolutionary courts. See also Annex 4, Babol University students’ verdicts as another example.
The Student Disciplinary Committee and Security offices (Herasat)
The Ministry of Science, Research and Technology is the organization directly responsible of depriving individuals of higher education but as an addition, University officials play an independent role in both temporary ban of students and permanent expulsions and are known to be the key factor in such cases.
The procedure to reach a decision in a student’s case might consist of these stage:
- Preliminary/Primary Disciplinary Committee of the university;
- The appellate Disciplinary Committee of the university;
- The Ministry of Science’s Central Disciplinary Committee
Disciplinary Committees inside of universities were operating under the regulations passed by The Supreme Cultural Revolution Council in 1374/06/14 (1995), under classification number 358 and “the disciplinary code for students” passed by ministries of “Science, Research and Technology” and “Health and Medical Education” in 2005.
The Disciplinary Committee can sentence students to a maximum two-term temporary ban from attending classes. Repetition of such verdicts could lead to the expulsion of a student.
According to SCRC’s regulations, members of the Disciplinary Committee and the process by which these members are appointed is as followed:
- University’s Deputy Chairman as head of the Primitive/Primary Disciplinary Committee;
- Head of supreme leader’s office in each University or an authorized plenipotentiary representative of aforementioned office;
- A faculty member appointed by the dean of University;
- Two students selected by the University’s dean;
- Secretary of The Preliminary Disciplinary Committee, appointed by committee’s chairman;
Members of The Appellate Disciplinary Committee consist of:
- University’s Dean as chairman of the committee
- Head of supreme leader’s office in University
- University’s deputy chairman as secretary of the committee.
A noteworthy fact is that under sector 7 “The Disciplinary Code ”, students have the right to participate in their committee session and if they choose to do so, the Committee’s Secretary is obligated to inform and invite those individuals, when in fact committee officials prevent students and committee members from attending the sessions in many universities. In most cases, after facing accusations students only have the opportunity to put their defense and statement in writing at a committee member’s presence on which the committee’s decision is based upon.
In addition to The Disciplinary Committee, Security offices are active executives of The Ministry of Intelligence in Universities. Targeting students, these offices are a key factor regarding labeling students as starred students. Intelligence acquired by this administration is at The Intelligence Ministry’s direct disposal and have been used in numerous students’ interrogations by this Ministry.
Part II — Student Groups Expelled from Universities in Iran
As stated earlier, during the past years Iranian students have been deprived of their right to education for various reasons.
Appendix 5 of this report refers to about 768 students deprived of their education and 250 expulsions of students and professors from April 2005 to March 2013. An additional 650 students expelled or deprived of education have been recorded but the names have not been published here. This report names only a portion of the students who have been banned from continuing their education. In many cases students do not publish their files due to security concerns or because they are awaiting a promised appeal of their case.
In order to obtain acceptance to graduate schools in Iran, students must take entrance exams in a highly competitive process. From the year 2007 onward, the Ministry of Intelligence in collaboration with the Ministry of Science and National Organization of Educational Testing (NOET), which is in charge of the national exams, devised a new plan that impedes many students from obtaining graduate degrees. The Office for Consolidating Unity (Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat), which is the largest student and alumni group in the country, and the Advocacy Council for the Right to Education (ACRE), have published reports regarding starring and banning students from their right to education in Iran. Following is a portion of the published reports.
In 2007, in a new campaign intended to intimidate students, after the preliminary entrance test results in the NOET newspaper were published, “one, two, or three starred” students were banned from enrolling in graduate schools per orders of various agencies; like the university’s Security Offices or Disciplinary Committee, “Central Disciplinary Committee” of the Ministry of Science, reviews by the “Secretariat of Student Vetting”, or direct orders by the Ministry of Intelligence. A student with three stars is not allowed to go universities and obtain a master’s degree. One and two starred students are under watch meaning they are not allowed to participate in any student or political activities.
In 2008 and 2009, by changing the procedures, the ruling apparatus did not allow test results for starred students to be issued. The entrance examination results for graduate school are announced in two stages.
First, students get their ranking in their primary academic transcript with their percentage test results in each subject matter. Next, relative to their earned grades, the students choose one of few available subjects as a major and a second report is issued. Those with a competitive advantage over other participants get accepted.
In some cases, it has been noted that the initial grades (percentage test results) were not recorded correctly; the score does not mathematically add up according to the percentages, rendering the recorded grade implausible.
According to a report by The Advocacy Council for the Right to Education (ACRE), in 2009 which was the year of the presidential elections, starred university students were initially able to receive their score reports and choose their area of study. But in September of that year when they followed up to obtain their final test results, they received a “rejection” and their transcripts were not published. The National Organization of Educational Testing (NOET) announced that these students had not picked a major. Since then, many students have been banned from receiving their transcript with their preliminary grades, test scores and student ranking. These students were told that due to an “incomplete in their file” they would have to follow up with the NOET.
During these years the “Secretariat of Student Vetting” has told many starred students that due to “general accreditation” or “malice towards the regime” they were banned from continuing their education and the decision would be reversed only with the consent of the Ministry of Intelligence of the Islamic Republic. In addition, many students were summoned to intelligence offices in Tehran and other cities and were verbally told they were not allowed to continue their education. In addition to the public universities in Iran, the final transcripts were not released for many starred students of non public institutions such as Islamic Azad universities. Siyamack Karimi and Zohreh Assadpour are two students who did not receive their transcripts. Appendix 5 of this report gives the names of 120 starred university students since the year 2005 to present.
Various government institutions are involved with labeling starred students:
- Office of Education Measurement
- Ministry of Intelligence
- Ministry of Science
- University Disciplinary Committee
- University Security Office
Suspended and Expelled Students
The disciplinary committees of the universities in Iran continuously block students from continuing their education. In the past years many students have been suspended or expelled from university because of their belief system or activities such as publishing critical student publications, membership in student organizations and taking part in student gatherings. Per the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council the disciplinary committees of the universities are comprised of people who are associated with the regime and the president of the university.
In the initial stage, the vice-chairman of the committee is in charge of taking action in a disciplinary case and the appeals process advances to the president of the university. In some cases the Revolutionary Court or a public court has issued a ruling of suspension or expulsion to university students.
In Appendix 5 of this report, more than 750 students banned from continuing their education are named along with specifics of their individual cases. According to this report, Allameh Tabatabaei University and AmirKabir University (Polytechnic) have accumulated the largest number of suspended or expelled students. The presidents of these universities, Sadreddin Shariati and Alireza Rahai are close allies of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
Students: According to the disciplinary regulations of the Ministry of Science, the disciplinary committees within the universities are allowed to hand out a maximum of 2 suspended terms (one academic calendar year). However, multiple penalties and registration constraints have resulted in many students in the country to effectively be dismissed from school. Additionally, the Disciplinary Committee of the Ministry of Science has issued expulsions for university students in the country. In numerous cases, the Judicial System has handed down expulsion or suspension sentences to university students. The university apparatus with the consent of the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council has expelled a large number of Baha’i students solely because of their faith.
Professors: The leader of the Islamic Republic along with officials of the Ministry of Science have repeatedly criticized the teaching of “western humanities” in the universities while demanding that Islamic ideals be instilled by removing “secular professors” from the country’s educational institutions. Many professors of the humanities in various universities such as Allameh Tabatabaei University and Tehran University have been fired or forced into retirement. In some cases professors were fired after the 2009 presidential elections due to their involvement in the presidential campaigns of Mir Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi.
Appendix 5 of this report contains the names of 656 dismissed students and professors with details of their individual cases.
Religious Minorities Banned From Education
According to the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council, university students must be Muslim or follow one of the accepted religions stipulated in the country’s constitution (Zoroastrian, Jewish or Christian). Due to this law, after the Revolution of 1979, citizens following the Baha’i faith have been prohibited from attending the country’s universities. According to statistics shared by the Baha’i International Community (BIC) with publishers of this report, before 2006 no follower of the Baha’i faith attended university in Iran due to a line in the exam registration form that asked the applicant to state their religion. After 2006 when the question of religion was removed from the forms, 800 followers of the Baha’i faith took part in the national exams; 480 students passed the first application process and 289 were accepted to universities. Since then, over half of the accepted students have been expelled after it was revealed that they were Baha’i.
In the academic year 2007-08, of the 1,000 Baha’i citizens who took part in the national exams, 800 were not issued their test results. The reason given was an “incomplete file” but when the citizens attempted to pursue the reason for this, it was to no avail. Of the 200 citizens who received test results, 121 individuals were accepted to universities and over 50 of them have since been expelled.
In the academic year 2008-09, on the Internet webpage that announces test results, every citizen that had previously been marked as Baha’i (in their secondary schools or other places) was marked with an “incomplete file” and none of them were able to enroll in a university. Today there are very few Baha’i citizens who have been accepted and attend universities in Iran. Appendix 5 of this report details the accounts of about 100 of the banned or expelled Baha’i students in the years 2005-2012. Moreover, during this academic year numerous Baha’i students have been expelled from universities across the country because of their religion.
Depriving Women of Education
Following the 1979 Revolution in Iran and the consolidation of the religious regime, numerous limitations were imposed on women’s presence and participation in various social arenas. Despite these restrictions, women have succeeded, through their own efforts, in having a more prominent presence in public spaces such as universities such that in recent years women make up more than 50% of those who pass the nationwide university entrance exams and are admitted to universities. On the other hand, as women presence in public spaces such as universities increased, pressure and restrictions by the ruling establishment also intensified.
In the wake of the Cultural Revolution in 1980, female students were excluded from choosing 91 of the 169 offered in universities. The majority of these 91 programs were in technical and engineering field. The restriction in choosing these fields of studies was lifted for women in 1989. However, new restrictions were considered: the gender-based quota system was proposed in 2004. This project came to effect after the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in 2005, thus accelerating discrimination against women in universities. Based on reports published by Justice for Iran, in school year 2012-2013, women have been entirely banned from public and free education in 14 university programs. In another 241, including 92 in sciences, 47 in mathematics and applied sciences, and 53 in arts and humanities, 12 in foreign languages, and 23 in fine arts, serious restrictions have been imposed on women applying to universities to study in these fields.
Furthermore, after the 1979 revolution, girls have faced discrimination in regards with receiving government bursary for studying abroad; they have been only able to take advantage of these bursaries if they are married (section 13 of “Guideline for Granting the Educational Bursary, and Sending the Students Abroad”).
More recently, a law is being considered in the Iranian Parliament which would require single girls and women to have their father’s permission before they could obtain a passport. This law could make continuing the education abroad, or even attending academic and scientific seminars held outside Iran more difficult for women. In August 2012, with the publication of the booklet used by the candidates to choose their university program, it became clear that through implementation of “Gender-based segregation” in more than 60 universities across the country, women have been deprived of and excluded from the choice to study in many programs in various Iranian cities. Similarly, the number of women admitted will be, through discrimination, less than men in many of the popular university programs (it is noteworthy that based on sexual segregation in Iranian universities, many of male applicants are banned from various fields of studies as well).
Accordingly, one out of every six university program codes will be offered for male or female students only. On Average, more than 17% of the programs have been subject to sexual segregation: 20% of Mathematics and Technical filed programs, 30% of Arts and Humanities, 10% of Sciences, 34% of Fine Arts, and 25% of Foreign Languages programs will be men-only or women only programs offered exclusively to members of one sex (Source: Daneshjoo News).
Islamic Republic regime’s actions in preventing many of the citizens from pursuing education because of their political and religious beliefs or their peaceful activism and its discrimination against women based on their gender, not only is an act in violation of human dignity, but also is contravene to Iran’s own constitution as well as international charters and conventions whose contents Iran has made a commitment to uphold.
According to articles 2 and 13 of “International Covenant on Economic, social, and Cultural Rights” to which Iran is a signatory, higher education should be equally accessible to all citizens “without discrimination of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status”.
Islamic Republic’s conduct in denying the citizens access to education is also flagrantly in violation of various articles of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Convention on Civil and Political Rights, and UNESCO’s Convention against Discrimination in Education. In section 1 of article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, it is clearly stated that “…higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit”. However, other sections of this universal Declaration have also been flagrantly violated by the Islamic Republic through depriving the citizens in an illegal and discriminatory manner of access the education.
Article 1 of UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education also rejects any “distinction, exclusion, limitation or preference which, [is] based on race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other \ opinion”. Islamic Republic of Iran has never assumed responsibility for its inhumane acts. It has denied that it has banned citizens from education for their various political beliefs. However, passing unjust laws, the high number of banned students in Iran, and credible evidences in this matter should lead to concrete actions and investigation by International organizations.
Iranian regime, in a first step, has to annul all the unjust rulings dictating a ban on education, and then take action to change its discriminatory laws. In addition, it has to free Zia Nabavi, Majid Dorri and all prisoner students, who have been banned from education, and have been arrested and sentenced to long imprisonment terms for pursuing the right to education.
Section 3: Annex (to view documents sourced in the report and the names of suspended, starred, and expelled students, please refer to the PDF version of the report.)
گزارش ۸ سال نقض حق تحصیل دانشجویان در ایران: بیش از ۱۰۰۰ مورد محرومیت از تحصیل و دانشجوی ستاره دار
شنبه، ۱۸ خرداد، ۱۳۹۲
گزارش ۸ سال نقض حق تحصیل شهروندان ایرانی در دانشگاه های کشور با هدف معرفی سازمان های موثر در نقض حق تحصیل و ارائه اسامی بیش از ۱۰۰۰ مورد محرومین از تحصیل و دانشجویان ستاره دار منتشر شد.
این گزارش که توسط کمیسیون حقوق بشر دفتر تحکیم وحدت با همکاری سایت دانشجونیوز و کمپین دفاع از حق تحصیل آماده شده، به ارائه برخی از مستندات و همچنین اطلاعات طبقه بندی شده بیش از ۱۰۰۰ مورد محرومین از تحصیل از فروردین ماه ۱۳۸۴ تا اسفند ۱۳۹۱ می پردازد.
گزارش نقض حق تحصیل همچنین در اختیار گزارشگر ویژه حقوق بشر سازمان ملل متحد در امور ایران و گزارشگر ویژه حق تحصیل سازمان ملل متحد قرار خواهد گرفت.
این گزارش در حالی منتشر می شود که در روزهای اخیر روابط عمومی وزارت علوم با صدور اطلاعیه ای اعلام کرده بود که “ستارهدار کردن دانشجویان توسط وزارت علوم در سالهای اخیر کذب محض است”.
پس از روی کار آمدن محمود احمدی نژاد در انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۴، بخشی از سیاست های وزارت علوم ایران و سازمان سنجش آموزش کشور به طور پررنگ تری در راستای تصمیمات نهادهای سرکوبگر برون دانشگاهی مانند وزارت اطلاعات و بخش هایی از قوه قضائیه قرار گرفت. علاوه بر این، با تصمیم وزیر علوم و تایید شورای عالی انقلاب فرهنگی، افراد جدیدی به عنوان روسای دانشگاه های کشور منصوب شدند که در طول این سال ها سهم عمده ای در محرومیت از تحصیل دانشجویان داشته اند. تکذیب وجود دانشجویان ستاره دار در این سال ها در حالی صورت می گیرد که هم اکنون شماری از این دانشجویان به دلیل فعالیت های مرتبط با حق تحصیل در زندان هستند.
این گزارش در سه بخش کلی، اطلاعات اولیه در مورد نقض سیستماتیک حق تحصیل و آموزش شهروندان ایرانی را ارائه کرده است. بخش اول این گزارش به نقش نهادهای موثر در نقض حق تحصیل شماری از شهروندان در ایران می پردازد. بخش دوم این گزارش به نحوه نقض حق تحصیل پنج گروه مشخص؛ دانشجویان ستاره دار، محروم از تحصیل، اخراجی، اقلیت های مذهبی و زنان؛ در ایران با ارائه جزئیات و نمونه هایی در مورد هر گروه می پردازد. بخش سوم و نهایی این گزارش حاوی پیوست هایی مانند فهرست اطلاعات طبقه بندی شده بیش از ۱۰۰۰ مورد نقض حق تحصیل شهروندان ایرانی (۲۵۰ مورد اخراج اساتید و دانشجویان و ۷۶۸ مورد محرومیت از تحصیل) پس از سال ۱۳۸۴ و مدارک اخراج و محرومیت از تحصیل دانشجویان است.
برخی از بخش های این گزارش تفصیلی در حالی در ادامه آمده است که برای مشاهده اسامی محرومین از تحصیل و دریافت گزارش کامل می توانید از اینجا اقدام کنید.
بخش اول- نهادهای رسمی موثر در محروميت از تحصيل شهروندان ايرانی
در سال های اخیر، سازمان های مختلفی در کشور در محرومیت از تحصیل شهروندان ایرانی نقش مستقیم و یا غیر مستقیم ایفا کرده اند. در این بخش به معرفی برخی از این نهادها و نحوه عملکرد آنان می پردازیم.
برای دیدن اطلاعات بیشتر بر روی عناوین کلیک کنید.
الف. سازمان سنجش آموزش کشور
ب. شورای عالی انقلاب فرهنگی
ج. وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری
د. دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی و وزارت بهداشت، درمان و آموزش پزشکی
ه. وزارت اطلاعات
و. قوه قضائیه
ز. کمیته انضباطی دانشگاه و حراست
بخش دوم: گروه های مختلف محروم از تحصيل در ايران
همان گونه که ذکر شد، دانشجویان ایرانی در سال های اخیر به دلایل و شکل های مختلف از حق بدیهی تحصیل در دانشگاه های ایران محروم شده اند. در پیوست ۵ این گزارش به ۷۶۸ مورد احکام محرومیت دانشجویان از تحصیل و ۲۵۰ مورد اخراج دانشجویان و اساتید از دانشگاه های ایران با شرح جزئیات این موارد از فروردین ۱۳۸۴ تا اسفند ماه ۱۳۹۱ اشاره شده است. علاوه بر این نزدیک به ۶۵۰ مورد محرومیت از تحصیل و اخراج شهروندان از دانشگاه های کشور به ثبت رسیده که اسامی آنان منتشر نشده است. لازم به ذکر است این گزارش تنها بخشی از موارد مستند شده ای است که شهروندان ایرانی از حق بدیهی تحصیل محروم شده اند. در بسیاری از موارد دانشجویان به دلیل فضای امنیتی و یا قول هایی مبنی بر تجدیدنظر در پرونده از افشای اطلاعات مرتبط با محرومیت از تحصیل خود خودداری می کنند.
برای دیدن اطلاعات بیشتر بر روی عناوین کلیک کنید.
اقدام حکومت جمهوری اسلامی ایران مبنی بر جلوگیری از تحصیل شمار زیادی از شهروندان ایرانی به دلیل عقاید سیاسی، مذهبی و یا فعالیت های صلح آمیز بدور از خشونت، و یا تبعیض تحصیلی علیه زنان به دلیل جنسیت، علاوه بر اینکه رفتاری مخالف با شان و کرامت انسانی است؛ مخالف بندهایی از قانون اساسی کشور و همچنین میثاق ها و کنوانسیون های بین المللی است که ایران به رعایت مفاد آن متعهد شده است.
بر اساس بندهایی از ماده دوم و ماده سیزدهم “میثاق بین المللی حقوق اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی”که جمهوری اسلامی ایران نیز بدان متعهد شده است، آموزش عالی باید به طور مساوی برای همه شهروندان، “بدون هیچ نوع تبعیض از حیث نژاد، رنگ، جنس، زبان، مذهب، عقیده سیاسی و یا هر عقیده دیگر یا اصل و منشاء ملی یا اجتماعی، دارایی، نسب یا هر وضعیت دیگر” در دسترس باشد.
رفتار جمهوری اسلامی در محرومیت شهروندان از تحصیل همچنین به طور آشکار با اصول متعددی از اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر، پیمان بین المللی حقوق مدنی و سیاسی و کنوانسیون یونسکو علیه تبعیض تحصیلی در تضاد است.
در بخش هایی از بند اول ماده 26 اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر به صراحت ذکر شده است که “دستیابی به آموزش عالی به شکلی برابر برای تمامی افراد و بر پایه شایستگی های فردی صورت پذیرد”. این در حالی است که بندهای دیگری از این این اعلامیه جهان شمول نیز به شکلی اشکار توسط جمهوری اسلامی ایران با محرومیت از تحصیل شهروندان به شکلی غیر قانونی و تبعیض آمیز نقض می گردد.
در بند نخست کنوانسیون یونسکو علیه تبعیض تحصیلی نیز هرگونه محرومیت و محدودیتی بر اساس مواردی مانند زبان، مذهبی، عقاید سیاسی یا سایر عقاید نفی شده است.
اگر چه جمهوری اسلامی ایران همواره با انکار محرومیت از تحصیل شهروندان به دلایل مختلف سیاسی، عقیدتی و … مسئولیت اقدامات غیر انسانی خود را نپذیرفته است، اما تصویب قوانین ناعادلانه، تعداد بالای محرومین از تحصیل در ایران و شواهد موثق در این زمینه می بایست به اقدام جدی و پیگیرانه از سوی نهادهای مسئول بین المللی در این زمینه منجر گردد.
حکومت ایران باید در مرحله نخست کلیه احکام ناعادلانه محرومیت از تحصیل صادر شده را لغو، و نسبت به تغییر قوانین تبعیض آمیز خود اقدام نماید. همچنین دانشجویان محروم از تحصیل زندانی مانند ضیا نبوی و مجید دری که به جرم پیگیری حق تحصیل و عضویت در شورای دفاع از حق تحصیل بازداشت و به احکام طولانی مدت حبس محکوم شده اند، را آزاد کند.